The Northeast India, (22-30 degree N and 89-97 degree E) spread over 2,62,379 sq.km., represents the transition zone between the Indian, Indo-Malayan and Indo-Chinese biogeographic regions and a meeting place of the Himalayan Mountains and Peninsular India. It was the part of the northward moving ‘Deccan Peninsula’ that first touched the Asian landmass after the break up of Gondwanaland in the early Tertiary Period. Northeast India is thus the geographical ‘gateway’ for much of India’s flora and fauna. It is in this lowland-highland transition zone that the highest diversity of biomes or ecological communities can be found, and species diversities within these communities are also extremely high.
There are many National Parks and Wildlife Sancturaies in the states of Northeast India – Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram, Manipur and Tripura.
However the best places to visit for mammels is in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh –
The wildlife sanctuaries in Assam are a heterogeneous mixture of a variety of landscapes, plants, birds and animals. The suitable climatic conditions, geographical location and vast forest reserves have made Assam a favorable destination for birds, animals and natural vegetation. Assam is home to several wildlife sanctuaries and national parks that are the breeding ground for some of the rarest global species. The many wildlife sanctuaries in Assam provide shelter to large number of wildlife right from the Golden Langur to the horned rhinoceros.
Places to Visit
- KAZIRANGA NATIONAL PARK
- MANAS NATIONAL PARK
- NAMERI NATIONAL PARK
- ORANG NATIONAL PARK
- DIBRU SAIKHOWA NATIONAL PARK
- POBITORA WILDLIFE SANCTUARY
The fauna of Arunachal Pradesh is equally rich with as many as 25 species of mammals included in Schedule – I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
The large herbivours of the foot-hills and adjoining plains are the elephant (Elephas maximus), gaur (Bos gaurus) and the wild buffalo (Bubalus bufalis).
Arunachal Pradesh is perhaps the only State which has four major cats, i.e. tiger (Panthera tigris), leopard (Panthera pardus), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) and snow leopard (Panthera uncia). Lesser cats like the golden cat, leopard cat and the marbled cat are also found here.
Seven species of primates i.e. hoolock gibbon, slow loris, Assamese macaque, rhesus macaque, pig-tailed macaque, stump-tailed macaque, and capped langur also occur in the forests of the State. This is the only state where all the 3 goat antelopes occurring in India, i.e. serow, goral and takin are found. The highly endangered hispid hare (caprolagus hispidus) is also found in low grassy areas of the State.
Among the smaller mammals several Rodents (squirrel, porcupine and rats), Civets, mongoose, linsang, shrew and bat species are also to be found. On higher elevations, animals like goral, Himalayan black bear, red panda, are met with in various parts of the State. Over 500 bird species inhabit Arunachal Pradesh including some endangered and endemic ones like, white winged wood duck, Sclater’s Monal, Temmincks Tragopan, black necked crane, Mishmi wren and Bengal florican.
The 'Mithun' (Bos Frontails) exist both in wild and semi-domesticated form. This animal has religious significance and intimate relation with socio-cultural life of the people. Traditionally, the mithun is a unit of wealth and is allowed to move freely in jungle till it is either used for food on festive occasions and marriage feasts, or for barter.
Arunachal Pradesh is also the happy home of the great Indian Hornbills-the set extraordinary bird with an inordinately large beak which is also the State bird. The white winged wood duck, a rare endangered species, has been sheltered in Namdapha National Park. Namdapha sanctuary was upgraded to the status of National park in 1983.
Places to visit:
- NAMDAPHA NATIONAL PARK
- EAGLENEST WILDLIFE SANCTUARY
We organise wildlife tours in all the areas of Northeast India. If you are interested to experience do write to us with your specific interest and we will try to make a memorable tour.